Define the wind

Wind is defined as horizontal or almost horizontal air movement relative to the earth’s surface.

The wind is caused by the pressure difference and differences in the shape of the surface. The term wind is used in meteorology almost exclusively to determine the horizontal component of the wind. However, there is a vertical component of the wind and then it is so called. The wind may blow from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure areas, but in medium latitudes, due to the Coriolis force, the wind usually blows parallel to the same pressure line (geostrophic wind). The wind is one of the components of the weather, for this purpose the wind speed is given (in m / s or km / h) and the direction from which it blows. Attention should be paid when using the terminology of the wind direction: meteorologists under the name western wind understand the wind blowing from the west, while the „western ocean current” is the current flowing west (ie the difference by 180 degrees in the definition of direction).


Types of wind

Generally, the most common are: passages, winds of barotic systems, monsoons, local winds, fens, forests, breezes and valley and mountain winds. The wind speed and force depends on the gradient, i.e. the pressure difference between the two points, the higher the difference the faster the wind speed will be. The air movement usually takes place in a direction parallel to the Earth’s surface, but with a suitable surface configuration it may have a different course, e.g. up – down.


Winds can be divided into

– permanent, i.e. winds that do not change their direction throughout the year, including: trade winds and parasites;

– seasonal (periodic) winds that change direction in an annual or daily cycle, to which we can include cyclones, monsoons;

– non-periodic (local) which are related to the impact of terrain forms and thermal contrasts of the substrate.

– desert, i.e. Harmattan, Simoom.


Local wind

Due to the temperature changes brought by the wind, hot and cold winds are distinguished. Local winds are associated with the phenomenon of sea breeze, mountain-valley wind, catabatic wind and other types.

  • bora wind (belat, helm, mistral, bora, yugo, tramontana, blizzard, lewanter, nortes) – cool wind flowing from highlands and mountainous areas directly next to the sea or large lake;
  • fox type wind (austrul, autan, bohorok, mountain wind, fen, chinook, sirocco, samum, harmattan, etezje, reshabar) – dry and warm down on the leeward side of the mountains losing moisture at the flow of moist air over the mountain ridge.

Around 2000 names of local winds are distinguished around the world.


Wind activity is conditioned by physical weathering, which provides fine mineral particles. Without them, the sculptural activity of the wind would be impossible. The wind itself, hitting the rock, has no effect. On the other hand, carrying rock fragments, it destroys and builds up.