What is climate? Climate definition
Climate is a system of weather conditions for a given area, characteristic for longer periods of time, shaped by the physical and geographical properties of this area. The climate concerns long-term phenomena.
The issue of climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economic problems, and in consequences and political. The issue of the impact of climatic conditions on the economic life of countries is already widely perceived and given a lot of attention both on a global scale and by the governments of individual countries.
Factors affecting the climate
Meteorological factors: types of air masses, distribution of barotic centers, distribution of atmospheric fronts.
Non-meteorological (geographical) factors: latitude, distance from sea tanks, sea currents
landform, nature of the ground (vegetation), ice sheet.
In addition to the main climatic zones, lower climate units can be distinguished in each zone:
- local climates – the climates of cities, lowlands or individual ranges in the mountains
- place climates (topoclimates) – means the atmosphere of the object that can be characterized topographically (eg topoclimat of the slope, beach, mid-forest clearing)
- microclimates – (eg of individual floors of the forest, i.e. microclimate of litter, undergrowth, etc.)
The climate of a given place on Earth is the result of the interaction of climatic factors. Climatologists, when considering the causes of climate change, divide into zones and types.
The first divisions of climatic zones on Earth were identified with the Earth’s lighting zones changing with latitude. From the second half of the nineteenth century, classifications of climates based on several components, most often at temperature and precipitation, were started, but also climate connections with natural vegetation, air circulation and air masses were considered.
On the basis of the distribution of rainfall and temperature during the year in connection with the vegetation cover, you can distinguish 5 climatic zones on each hemisphere:
A tropical rainforest climate also known as an equatorial climate
In this zone, the average temperature of all months exceeds 20°C (usually fluctuates between 24-28°C). High humidity and cloudy weather make it difficult to lose heat through the earth’s surface, which is why the diurnal and annual temperature amplitudes do not exceed several degrees. High rainfall increases at the zenithic position of the Sun (zenith rains). They occur in the afternoon. Higher precipitation (up to 3,000 mm) occurs over land. It is connected with high evaporation and easier formation of rain clouds. The system of seasons depends on the distribution of rainfall. This zone is characterized by a humid equatorial equatorial climate with one or two rainy seasons.
A tropical climate
The weather of this zone is shaped by dry and hot air of the tropic air. The average annual temperature is above 20°C, but in the coldest month ranges from 10°C to around 25-35°C. During the day, large daily temperature fluctuations are observed, especially in a dry climate. This is due to lack of cloud cover and lack of plant cover. During the day, the surface heats up quickly, at night a strong radiation of heat and a drop in temperature occur. The highest temperatures on the Earth are recorded above 60°C. Precipitation prevail in the summer half-year and are particularly high in the monsoon climate, and in extremely dry varieties they are sporadic or do not occur at all.
In this zone there is a clear seasonal circulation of temperature and precipitation. I fly weather is shaped by the influence of tropical air, in the winter under the influence of polar air. The average annual temperature varies from 10 to 20°C, and the coldest month in marine climates is around 10°C, and in continental climates does not exceed 0°C. In summer, temperatures are very high in dry climates. The course of temperatures and fumes is determined by the system of seasons. The most characteristic climates of this zone are: Mediterranean climate included in the group of marine climates with a predominance of precipitation in the winter season with a hot and dry summer; monsoon climate with precipitation for the summer season and dry continental climate with very hot summers (around 30°C), cold winters and very small annual rainfall (less than 500 mm).
The temperate or tepid climates
The climate of the temperate zone is shaped under the influence of polar air, as well as periodically entering, tropical and arctic (Antarctic) air. In this zone, two main types of climates can be distinguished: sea and continental. The average annual temperature is from 0 to 10°C, in the hottest month it exceeds 10°C. Temperatures determine the seasoning system. Precipitation occurs in different seasons. In sea and transitional climates annual annual amplitude does not exceed 25°C, winters are relatively warm, and cool years. In continental climates, the amplitude is over 25°C, and in extreme continental distances it can be around 50°C; winters are cold and dry (average January temperature is -40°C), and hot years (average summer temperature is around 20-24°C). Sea climates have a relatively even distribution of fumes (over 700 mm), with a slight advantage in the winter half-year. In the remaining varieties, the amount of precipitation (predominantly in spring and summer) decreases towards the interior of the continents. In the group of hot climates, the average summer temperature exceeds 15°C, and in the group of cold climates, the temperature of two summer months varies from 10 to 15°C.
Subarctic climate also known as subpolar climate
The average annual temperature is below 0°C, and in the hottest month it does not exceed 10°C. All-year rainfall (mainly snow) with a summer predominance does not exceed 500 mm. The temperature distribution and the duration of the polar days and nights are determined by the arrangement of the seasons. In polar polar climate, the temperature of the warmest month does not exceed 0°C. The lowest temperatures on Earth reach -90°C.