What is a microclimate? Microclimate definition

Microclimate, shape the phenomena occurring in the approx. 2-meter layer of air adhering to the surface of the ground and on the contact surface with the ground related primarily to the local conditions of the tern surface (microrelief, exposure, vegetation, etc.). The close dependence on the heterogeneity of the substrate surface causes that the microclimate, even within the same topoclimate, is characterized by high variability, both in the vertical and horizontal direction. You can therefore speak about the microclimate of the forest clearing, coastal zone of the forest, puddle, asphalt street, individual crop rotation fields, fragments of slopes, elevations and depressions, etc.

From the point of view of organisms, it is a set of physical factors directly defining the living conditions of an organism or group of organisms, depends directly on various terrain objects, natural or artificial. Organisms living in the bottom of the forest live in a different microclimate than those that live in the layer of wood crowns, the cave creates a special microclimate for cave organisms, similarly man can create plants for microclimate, cultivating them in greenhouses or greenhouses.


Types of microclimate

The microclimate in the encyclopaedic sense is the climate characteristic of a small part of the environment, the separateness of which is due to the specificity of the system of factors that create it, eg height and fluctuations in temperature, humidity, air movement speed, etc. A defined microclimate may be characterized by both geographical area (eg city, valley, woods etc.), as well as artificial creation built by man (car interior, flat, production hall).

The basic factors that shape the microclimate include: air temperature, humidity, air movement, heat radiation, atmospheric pressure, etc.


All components of the microclimate have an impact on the well-being of animals and people, physical and mental fitness, on work efficiency and maintaining good health. The microclimate also determines the thermal management of the body.

Learn more about climate.