Assuming that the climate will remain unchanged would be a mistake.
Natural disaster definition
A natural disaster is an extreme natural phenomenon causing significant damage in the area covered by this phenomenon, leaving often a changed view of the earth’s surface. It also causes high losses in the human economy, can change the state of nature and even threaten human life.
Natural disaster types
Natural disasters include, among others:
flood, drought, extensive fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption, tsunami, hurricane, tornado, heavy snowfall and snow avalanches, extreme heat or frost, especially in the long term, landslides, cosmic disasters – meteorite collapse, meteor explosion, explosion a close supernova.
However, at least in relation to some of the above-mentioned weather phenomena, one has to add „unusual for a given area”. Currently, more and more cases of natural disasters for specific areas are treated not as an undesirable phenomenon but, on the contrary, as an indispensable element stabilizing a given ecosystem, especially on the scale of longer time intervals. Thus, the concept of natural disaster refers to the impact that it exerts on man rather than on nature.
Natural disaster causes
Increasing the number of natural disasters in the world and the damages caused by them are associated with a number of global social and natural processes. One of the causes of social and material losses is the rapid population of the Earth. The second reason is the human impact on the environment, which causes the activation of dangerous phenomena, such as hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, landslides, erosion.
Global warming can have a positive and negative impact on the environment. But first the warming provokes an increase in the number and scale of natural disasters.
How far climate change is conducive to the growth of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, droughts, floods?
This is due to a whole range of physical causes. In warmer climates, there is a total more energy in the system that heats the circulating water. Raising the temperature of the oceans can lead to an increase in the strength of tropical winds. Warmer air absorbs more water vapor, which favors extreme rainfall. Evaporation takes place faster, which with the same amount of precipitation causes soil drying and droughts. Receiving phenomena as extreme depends, moreover, on what we have been accustomed to so far.
Natural disaster information
Damage caused by flooding can be huge – people and animals are killed, entire villages are destroyed. Hundreds, even thousands of square kilometers of arable land are devastated because crops and fertile soil are washed away or covered with a thick layer of silt. In densely populated regions of less-developed countries, flooding of crops and death of domestic animals may cause widespread hunger. Floods are destroyed by roads, bridges, railways and sources of water and energy supply to the public. Broken sewers and the lack of clean water can lead to the rapid spread of diseases (cholera, typhoid, dysentery). Damage also includes soil erosion, which is washed away by a strong stream of water and lifted with it. This problem is exacerbated by the regulation of the riverbed, natural flood plains, and large areas of forests have been cut down for cultivation or construction. Forest vegetation acts like a sponge, storing excess water. If there is no forest, the soil is unable to absorb so much water, which then flows down the surface, causing flooding and soil erosion in low-lying areas. Destruction of the forest cover, together with the burning of fossil fuels and wood, is also the cause of the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which in turn increases the temperature and climate change on the whole Earth.
How do you predict a natural disaster? Natural disaster prevention
Prior to the threat of drought or forest fires, you can often be warned a few months or weeks ahead. In the case of an earthquake, this period is several seconds. We are still not able to predict the time, place and strength of the quake, but we can quite accurately assess the danger involved. Also the calculation with a 50-percent probability that a powerful earthquake could take place in the next 20 years is a warning. On this basis, precautions can be taken. Tighten building codes, strengthen unstable homes and improve the functioning of emergency medicine.